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Specific linguistic and typological features in the vowel system in the english and RUSSIAN languages
1. Classification of English and Russian vowel phonemes
1.1. Classification of English and Russian vowels according
to the position of the tongue
1.2. Classification of English and Russian vowels according
to the position of the lips
1.3. Classification of English and Russian vowels according
to the stability of articulation
2. Pronunciation of English and Ukrainain vowel phonemes
2.1. English and Russian front vowel phonemes
2.2. English and Russian back vowel phonemes
2.3. English mixed vowel phonemes
2.4. English diphthongs
List of Works Consulted
It should be pointed out here that the tongue may move vertically (it may be raised to various heights in the mouth) or horizontally (forward and backward).
According to the vertical movement of the tongue vowels are divided into the following groups:
1) When the tongue comes close to the palate and the air flows through the passage without causing audible friction, resulting vowels are called close. In pronouncing close vowels the air passage between the tongue and the palate is rather narrow, e.g. the esdfdsfsdnglish [i:], [u:] and the Russian [I], [У].
2) When the tongue is lowered and wide air passage is formed between the tongue and the roof of the mouth, the resulting vowels are called open, e.g. the English [æ], [Þ], [α:], [u:] and the Russian [A].
3) Half-open vowels are those in the production of which the tongue is raised half way between the close and the open positions, the tongue is in a position intermediate between those of open and close vowels, e.g. the English [ə], [e], [λ], [3:] and the Russian [E], [O].
It is possible to get several intermediate positions between these three extreme ones. G.P. Torsuyev suggests a supplementary subdivision into narrow and wide varieties.
There are classes of vowels – front and back, and several intermediate groups which are distinguished according to which part of the tongue is articulated – back, front, according to the horizontal movement of the tongue