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(Синергия МОИ МТИ МОСАП) Деловой иностранный язык (Прикладная информатика) (тест с ответами)

Тема : (Синергия МОИ МТИ МОСАП) Деловой иностранный язык (Прикладная информатика) (тест с ответами)

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Учебное заведение: Синергия МОИ МТИ МОСАП
Тип работы: Ответы, Ответы на тесты Синергии
Категория: Английский язык
Год сдачи: 2023
Количество страниц: 1
Оценка: 5
Дата публикации: 07.09.2023
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Год сдачи - 2023

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1. … are made for program logic and for computer memory
*Monitors
*Usb-ports
*Vacuum tubes
*Microchips
2. A general-purpose computing device called the analytical engine was developed in 1837 by …
*James Powers
*Vannevar Bush
*Charles Babbage
*William Seward Burrough
3. Arrange the computers in chronological order of their creation:
1 abacus
2 Napier’s bones
3 Analytical Engine
4 ENIAC
5 UNIVAC
4. Arrange the computers in chronological order of their creation:
1 Mark 1
2 Atanasoff-Berry Computer
3 Z1
4 abacus
5 EDVAC
5. Burroughs converted to electronic desk … and in the mid to late 1970s their products dropped from the market
*abacus
*memory
*calculators
*block note
6. In 1936, Alan Turing invented a universal machine, which was later called …
*the Colossus
*the Turing machine
*the Differential Analyzer
*the Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine
7. Match computers to their characteristics:
A. IBM
B. Apple
C. Mark 1
D. ENIAC
E. manufactured an easy-to-use computer with keyboard and mouse
F. stands for International Business Machine
G. the first computer
H. stands Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator
8. Match machines to their characteristics:
A. Jacquard Loom
B. Analytical Engine
C. Z3
D. Harvard Mark I
E. punched wooden cards
F. mechanical-digital computer
G. fully automatic computing machine
H. automatic sequence controlled calculator
9. Open the brackets, put the verb in the correct form in sentence: “Around the same period Intel (create) … three microprocessor designs”
10. Open the brackets, put the verb in the correct form in sentence: “Displays (attain) … VGA resolution by 1988, and 256-color screens were available by 1993”
11. Open the brackets, put the verb in the correct form in sentence: “In 1944 Howard Aiken (develop) … Mark l that could perform calculations involving large numbers”
12. Open the brackets, put the verb in the correct form in sentence: “Resolutions and colors of computers (progress) … quickly by 2022”
13. Open the brackets, put the verb in the correct form in sentence: “The microchip which (be) … a key component in the development of the personal computer”
14. Open the brackets, put the verb in the correct form in sentence: “The power of computers (double) … roughly every 18 months to 2 years since the 1960s”
15. Open the brackets, put the verb in the correct form in sentence: “What will the computers of the future (look) … like?”
16. Open the brackets, put the verb in the correct form in sentence: “Years ago this service (can) … be used to run algorithms and experiments, and explore tutorials and simulations around what might be possible with quantum computing”
17. The … is a small-scale special-purpose electronic digital machine for the solution of systems of linear algebraic equations and the first electronic computer incorporating vacuum tubes for digital computation
*Colossus
*Turing machine
*Differential Analyzer
*Atanasoff-Berry computer
18. The description of a type of microcomputer is down below:“This type of microcomputer is just like a Mobile Device, but bigger than Smartphone and smaller then Notebook Computer. Just like Totally Smartphone feature like Touch screen display, power full Battery Backup and we can calling and receiving call and click pictures and anything”.Find "out, what kind of microcomputer it is.
*This is a description of the tablet
*This is a description of the laptop
*This is a description of the smartphone
19. The explosion in world population and the rise of globalised trade demanded even faster and more flexible tools for processing …
*data
*trading
*building
*shipment
20. The first recognized use of the word “computer” was from …
*1575
*1613
*1753
*1801
21. The slide rule in its basic form uses … logarithmic scales to allow fast multiplication and division of numbers
* two
*three
*four
*five
22. A process of spreading the use of digital technology such as computers and the internet to do something is called …
23. A system of consumption and production that is based on intellectual capital is … economy
24. According to the … criterion highlighted by W. Martin, the main characteristics of the information society are information technology, which is widely used in production, institutions, the education system and in everyday life
*social
*cultural
*economic
*technological
25. According to the research company com Score Networks in 2019, the number of Internet users worldwide amounted to 747 million people. The United States has the largest audience of Internet users – 153.4 million people, that is, almost every second American regularly goes online. In second place is China – in China today 86.8 million Internet users. Russia still occupies 13th place in terms of the number of people connected to the Network – 12.7 million people. However, Africa with 800 million people accounts for only 1 % of the total number of its users in the world, with 90 % of them living in South Africa. Identify the type of information society problem in the above case study.
labor unemployment
inequality of countries and regions
insecurity of personal data
26. Information … must be viewed from two perspectives: as an independent industry, with its science, engineering, and manufacturing capabilities and as a basis for transformation of almost all areas of human activity
27. It … be noted that the problem of inequality in access to new information technologies is acute not only at the international level, but also at the micro level within each individual state
*must
*have to
*has to
*should
28. Match the main characteristics of the information society according to the following criteria by W. Martin:
A. Technological
B. Social
C. Economic
D. Political
E. Cultural
F. the key factor is information technologies, which are widely used in production, institutions, the education system and in everyday life
G. information acts as an important stimulant for changing the quality of life, “information consciousness” is formed and affirmed with wide access to information
H. information is a key factor in the economy as a resource, service, product, source of value added and employment
I. freedom of information leading to a political process characterized by growing participation and consensus among different classes and social strata of the population
J. recognition of the cultural value of information by promoting the assertion of information values in the interests of the development of the individual and society as a whole
29. Match the sentence with the time it was written:
A. Economists, sociologists, and other researchers began to investigate the effects of telecommunications and computing technologies on mature industrial countries during the 1950s and 1970s
B. For practically all of human history, labor has been sacral for the majority of people
C. Gartner has been studying and publishing the dynamics of the emergence and development of information technology for several years
D. The term “information society” refers to the social, economic, technological, and cultural changes
E. Past Simple
F. Present Perfect
G. Present Perfect Continuous
H. Present Simple
30. One of the advantages of Russia is an advantageous geographical location between trade and information and telecommunication flows …
*South-East
*West-East
*South-North
*North-East
31. Put the number of Internet users worldwide from the largest to the smallest:
1 the USA
2 China
3 Russia
4Africa
32. Speaking about the development of the information society in Russia, I. N. Kurnosov writes that “the strategy for the formation of the information society in the transition period to a new system of property relations … take into account the special role and responsibility of the state”
*must
* should
*have to
*to have to
33. The “information economy” and “post-industrial society”, two concepts from that period, are still key parts of the information … concept
34. The information society is established in those countries – … – in which a post-industrial society was formed in the 60s and 70s
*in Brazil, Saudi Arabia, China
*in Japan, the USA, Western Europe
*in Indonesia, India, Singapore
*in Russia, Poland, Georgia
35. The largest number of internet users currently in …
*China
*Russia
* the USA
*South Africa
36. The network can serve as a means of … propaganda materials of criminal organizations, recipes for the manufacture of explosives and poisonous substances, weapons, narcotic and psychotropic drugs, and methods for breaking electronic and other ciphers
*disseminating
*decreasing
*reduction
*removal
37. The stage of society’s development when the service sector generates more wealth than the manufacturing sector of the economy is called … society
38. The term “developed post-industrial society” was introduced by …
*W. Martin
*I. Rakitov
*N. Kurnosov
*F. Machlup
39. The term “information…” refers to the social, economic, technological, and cultural changes that have occurred as a result of the rapid development and extensive use of information and communication technologies
*people
*society
*industry
*world
40. The total value of goods and services produced by a country in one year is … (give the abbreviation)
41. The unfair situation in society when some people have more opportunities, money, etc. than other people, is called …
42. … integrated circuits are the name for the initial generations of commercially produced microelectronic devices (SSI)
43. “Molecular …” is a term for data storage technologies that use molecular species as the data storage element, rather than e.g. circuits, magnetics, inorganic materials or physical shapes
44. Arrange the stages in the history of transistors in chronological order:
1 use of vacuum tubes
2 creating a bipolar transistor
3 manufacture of field-effect transistors
45. Bell Telephone Laboratories’ John Bardeen, Walter H. Brattain, and William Shockley devised the … transistor in 1948
46. Bell Telephone Laboratories’ John Bardeen, Walter H. Brattain, and William Shockley devised the bipolar transistor in …
*1935
*1948
*1964
*1992
47. Below is a description of one of the technologies: “It is a subfield of electronics. These devices are typically made from semiconductor materials. These include transistors, capacitors, inductors, resistors, diodes and (naturally) insulators and conductors. As a result, this kind of IT has the potential to lower skill requirements in some vocations while raising them in others. It has influenced our daily lives in a variety of ways, making our routines a little more pleasant”. Which technology is described in the text?
*This is a description of photonics, which are an application of light generation, detection, and manipulation through emission, transmission, modulation, signal processing, switching, amplification, and sensing
*This is a description of nanoelectronics, because it refers to the use of nanotechnology in electronic components. It is a set of devices and materials, with the common characteristic that they are so small that inter-atomic interactions and quantum mechanical properties need to be studied extensively
*This is a description of microelectronics, because as the name suggests, microelectronics relate, to the study and manufacture (or microfabrication) of very small electronic designs and components
48. Charge carriers from both polarities are involved in the operation of … transistors
49. Match the abbreviations and transcripts:
A. MSI
B. ALU
C. SSI
D. LSI
E. medium-scale integrated circuits
F. arithmetic and logic unit
G. small-scale integrated circuits
H. large-scale integrated circuit
50. Match the highlighted words with their meaning in the sentence:
A. The primary goal of robotization is to raise the productivity of industrial processes and the quality of products
B. Tomorrow, software applications may create real-world simulations so realistic that it will be difficult to tell whether people are looking at a computer monitor or out the window; however, such advancements will only be possible with significant performance improvements and low-cost computer technologies
C. Multi-core processors also have the advantage of increasing performance without increasing power consumption, resulting in higher performance per watt
D. attribute
E. asyndetic sentence
F. object
51. Match the parts of one sentence:
A. Bell Telephone Laboratories’ John Bardeen, Walter H. Brattain, and William Shockley…
B. A second type of transistor was conceived…
C. Small-scale integrated circuits are the name…
D. Medium-scale integrated circuits have more than around 10 gates on a chip…
E. …devised the bipolar transistor in 1948
F. …about 25 years before bipolar transistors
G. …given to the earliest generations of commercially produced microelectronic devices (SSI)
H. …but fewer than approximately 200
52. Match the parts of one sentence:
A. Today’s IT managers are faced with the task…
B. Another area where microelectronics has excelled is…
C. For the past 20 years, …
D. Microelectronics has influenced our daily lives in a variety of ways, …
E. …of providing more services to more users
F. …in the field of robotics
G. …the design of computer processors has remained stable
H. …making our routines a little more pleasant
53. Medium-scale integrated circuits have more than around 10 … on a chip but fewer than approximately 200 (MSI)
54. Nanoelectronics is the most … breakthrough in technical development
*perfect
*distant
*ancient
* recent
55. Prior to the transistor’s discovery in 1947, the only way to execute its function in an electronic circuit was to use a … tube
56. The advent of ways for creating the numerous functional units on a crystal of semiconductor materials was critical to the development of …
57. The development of integrated circuits and storage devices has continued at an exponential rate; each subsequent halving of component size now takes …
*one year
*five years
* two or three years
*four or six years
58. The early transistors were not only larger than the smallest tubes, but they were also more …
* expensive
*powerful
*low
*cheap
59. The introduction of microelectronic circuits did not, for the most part, modify the … of the basic functional units: transistors, resistors, capacitors, and other similar components were still used in microelectronic devices
*list
*future
*number
*character
60. The last decade’s technological advancements have played a … part in the formation of modern society
*poor
*small
* significant
*inconsiderable
61. The metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect …, which stands for MOSFET, is the most common in microelectronics
62. The transistor’s most significant advantage over the best vacuum tubes was that it consumed far …
*less power
*more power
*less voltage
*more voltage
63. … created the first operating system for the IBM 701
*MIT
*Apple
*Samsung
*General Motors
64. … was developed by Bell Labs and was the first significant operating system to be written almost entirely in high-level language
*Unix
*Linux
*Multics
*Windows 95
65. A user cannot send direct instructions to the hardware … various activities
*execute
*executes
* to execute
*to be executed
66. Because of the expense, the system’s productivity had to be increased … cost effectiveness
*assure
*assures
*to assure
*to be assured
67. Identify the sequence of generations of computers (by their description):
1 huge machines capable of conducting numerical calculations
2 computers were mostly utilized for scientific and technical calculations, with FORTRAN and assembly code being the most used programming languages
3 the machines shared the same architecture and instruction set, programs created for one could be run on the other
4 computers with Large Scale Integration Circuits (LSI) and silicon chips with thousands of transistors
68. Match the names of operating systems with their descriptions:
A. Linux Fedora
B. Ubuntu
C. Solaris
D. Free BSD
E. it consists of software provided under a variety of open-source and free licenses
F. it is available in three editions: Desktop, Server, and Core (for internet of things, devices and robots)
G. it is also known for its web, database and Java-based services and its unlimited capacity for helping in managing file system and databases is a big plus as well
H. it is a free UNIX based open-source software that is compatible with many platforms and boasts features such as speed and stability
69. Microsoft Windows eventually surpassed Mac OS … the world’s most popular personal computer operating system, with over 90 % market share
*become
*becomes
* to become
*to be become
70. Open the brackets, put the verb in the correct form in sentence: “A more systematic structure (form) … with the creation of ambitious operating systems in the mid-1960s”
71. Open the brackets, put the verb in the correct form in sentence: “A UNIX based operating system, Solaris (originally develop) … by Sun Microsystems in the mid-’90s”
72. Open the brackets, put the verb in the correct form in sentence: “Huge machines capable of conducting numerical calculations (construct) … in the mid-1940s”
73. Open the brackets, put the verb in the correct form in sentence: “LibreOffice, Firefox, Thunderbird, Transmission, and lightweight games like Sudoku and chess (include) … by default, while GNOME Files is the default file manager”
74. Open the brackets, put the verb in the correct form in sentence: “The addition of support for Linux programs, which (reveal) … in 2018, was a big advance”
75. Open the brackets, put the verb in the correct form in sentence: “The transistor, which (introduce) … in the mid-1950s, made computers more reliable”
76. Open the brackets, put the verb in the correct form in sentence: “There was no such thing when the first computers (develop) … following WWII”
77. Open the brackets, put the verb in the correct form in sentence: “Wireless network connectivity (also manage) … by mobile operating systems”
78. The …, which was introduced in the mid-1950s, made computers more reliable
*photonics
* transistor
*microchip
*vacuum tube
79. The Apple Macintosh, a low-cost workstation that emerged from early Alto computer concepts, was released in …
*1923
*1956
*1984
*2001
80. The description of the generation of computers is down below: “Computers of this generation appeared, when IBM introduced the System/360, a line of software-compatible computers with varying levels of capability and price. Because the machines shared the same architecture and instruction set, programs created for one could be run on the other”. Which generation of computers is described in the text?
*This is a description of the first generation, which lasted from 1940s to 1950s, when word-oriented computers typically had a single accumulator and an extension, referred to as, e.g., Upper and Lower Accumulator, Accumulator and Multiplier-Quotient (MQ) register
*This is a description of the third generation, which lasted from 1965 to 1980s. These devices generally relied on early (sub-1000 transistor) integrated circuit technology. The third generation ends with the microprocessor-based fourth generation
*This is a description of the fourth generation, which has been lasting from 1970s to Present. he basis of the fourth generation is the microprocessor, a computer processor contained on a single large-scale integration (LSI) MOS integrated circuit chip
81. The introduction of time-sharing systems, in particular, has long been regarded as a watershed moment in the evolution of … systems
*operating
*executing
*mediating
*monitoring
82. The type of operating system that is not directly linked to the computer is the … operating system
*batch
*distributed
*time-sharing
*multitasking
83. There are some of the potential benefits of distributed operating systems, for example … (choose 2 correct answers)
*they minimize the load on the host computer
*they require a high level of expertise to maintain
* they allow a faster exchange of data among users
*if the primary network fails, the entire system shuts down
84. … are important because they promote inter-service interoperability, meaning exchanging and making use of information, and interoperability between various component systems within the same service
*Collecting information
*Making information available
*Legacy systems
*Standards
85. … is a difficulty that develops when a solution that works for a small data set fails to function for a much larger data set due to a combinatorial explosion, such as in comparands
86. … is a person who creates the high-level design of a technical system
*Project manager
*System architect
*Enterprise architect
*Business systems analyst
87. … is an organized collection of data stored and accessed electronically
88. … is the person responsible for accomplishing all project objectives
*System architect
*Project manager
*System designer
*Change manager
89. A participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjective, to create verb tense, or to create the passive voice. There are two types of participles: Present participle (ending -ing) and Past participle (usually ending -ed, -d, -t, -en, or -n).Find the passage, where there are both Participle 1 and Participle 2.
*Data aggregation is the process of combining data from multiple sources into a single system or in close proximity to one another, such as on a display, so that the user may access them from a single platform. This gives users a significant edge because they have access to more resources without having to search. When data is gathered together, developers and system administrators can detect errors, superfluous information, and inconsistencies much more quickly. When data is aggregated, software developers and database administrators can begin to notice differences in common data sets and access methods. Data and knowledge are being grouped in order to improve databases and knowledge bases”
* “Engineers still have problems associated with the use of standards, and quite often with their misuse. Standards aid in the development of a good technical solution. However, they do not, by themselves, comprise the full solution. When users are in a hurry for a technical solution, they often overlook this and expect that the standards would address all of their difficulties”
* “Data access can be challenging due to a variety of issues. Why am I unable to view your information? The reasons are numerous and varied. The following are only a few of the many roadblocks to data availability”
90. Arrange the stages of the development of the internet in chronological order:
1 the first connection between Stanford and UCLA organisers, the emergence of ARPANET
2 TCP/IP is introduced as a mandatory protocol for all computers connected to the ARPANET
3 creation of the first Internet browser, Mosaic
91. Data … is the process of combining data from multiple sources into a single system or in close proximity to one another, such as on a display, so that the user may access them from a single platform
92. Data administrators, as well as policymakers, must keep a balance between two … aims
*opposite
*opposited
*opposition
*opposing
93. Duplication of effort, cost inefficiencies, lost business opportunities, medical catastrophes, and military disasters result from data access …
94. Engineers still have problems … with the use of standards, and quite often with their misuse and misunderstanding
*association
*associated
*associating
*associate
95. Establish a correspondence between data types and their description:
A. “A”
B. “B”
C. “C”
D. “D”
E. stands for the data that component administrators are ready to give
F. stands for what they are unwilling to disclose
G. stands for what the common, integrated information system requires
H. stands for what no one wants to see in the system
96. Four different data groupings are possible based on the four different …
97. It is important to ensure that the … data is accurate and relevant
*collecting
*is collecting
*collected
*collection
98. It is necessary to establish information-sharing procedures that are basic and straightforward to use in order to ensure that … is accessed
99. Joint organizations use standards on multiple levels – international, … and industry
100. Making information accessible is a challenge that frequently causes problems for …
*schools
*children
*workers
*businesses
101. Match the notions with the situations that describe them:
A. Documentation
B. Proprietary
C. Data-model mismatch
D. Security
E. Users are not aware of specific data sets because your metadata is not published. When metadata is not widely available, users may not even know which data sets they need
F. My unclassified data describe company secrets
G. I have an object-oriented database and my database is relational
H. I am not cleared to see your data
102. Nothing is more … to a user than to try to use a new system that has turned functionality that previously was easy to use, into an obscure procedure that is difficult to use
*frustrating
*frustrated
*frustration
*is frustrating
103. The standard markup language for documents designed to be displayed in a web browser is …
*RTF
*SGML
*HTML
*WWW
104. The standard markup language for documents designed to be displayed in a web browser is called … (give the abbreviation)
105. … by Microware System Corporation (USA) belongs to the class of UNIX-like systems and is a highly configurable high-performance real-time system
106. … is a bottleneck in most operating systems and usually creates significant problems for RTOS
107. … is a commercial Unix-like real-time operating system, aimed primarily at the embedded systems market, have been implemented in many hundreds of companies, including such well-known and large ones as Du Pont, Ferranti-Packard, General Motors, Kodak and others
108. A real-time operating system (RTOS) is an operating system (OS) for real-time applications that processes data and events that have critically defined time constraintsGive a proper explanation of the predictability of RTOS.
*RTOS must be able to adapt to downgrades/upgrades, or any modifications. Such provisions must be made during the design phase and installed in any RTOS
*RTOS must be able to execute actions within a specified time frame and produce excepted results. The targets, which get achieved, are set during the production phase or procedural planning
*Ultimately as with many other platforms, RTOS are designed to make the work easier. It does so by solving the problems provided, which therefore reduce the workload
109. Arrange the units of measurement of the data in ascending order:
1 bit
2 byte
3 kilobyte
4 megabyte
5 gigabyte
6 terabyte
110. Inheritance … that a thread that blocks a resource inherits the priority of the thread it blocks
*means
*mean
*ment
*is meaning
111. Limited … resources are determined by the hardware features of the PC on which the RTS is operating
112. Match the operating systems and their characteristics:
A. QNX RTOS
B. ОСРВ VxWorks
C. ОСРВ OS-9
D. it supports scheduling up to 300 processes with 32 priority levels and 4 scheduling algorithms
E. it supports unlimited number of tasks and has 256 levels of task priority
F. support for Motorola, Intel 80386
113. Match the operating systems and their release dates:
A. Linux
B. QNX
C. Android OS
D. initial public release was in 1991 (kernel)
E. initial public release was in 1982
F. initial public release was in 2008
114. Match the systems and their characteristics:
A. RTOS
B. RTS
C. POS
D. MacOS
E. a special type of system software that is used to create and manage RTS
F. a specific system associated with a real object, processes. It includes the required hardware, operating system, and application software
G. the first commercially successful operating system based on messaging as the only way to exchange information between cooperating processes
H. a line of open core graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc., the latest of which is pre-loaded on all currently shipping Macintosh computers
115. Match the units of data measurement with their characteristics:
A. Byte
B. Megabyte (Mb)
C. Terabyte (TB)
D. is made up of eight bits and represents a value between 0 and 255
E. is approximately 1000 Gb
F. is approximately 1000 kb, or the equivalent of one million characters
116. QNX … produced by QNX SoftWare Systems (USA) and is designed for high-critical applications that operate smoothly for years
*is
*was
*are
*were
117. Real-time operating systems (RTOS) … a special type of system software that is used to create and manage RTS
*is
* are
*was
*is to be
118. RTOS are operating systems that are characterized by … (choose 3 correct answers)
*high performance
*availability of monitoring tools
*support for various special equipment
* a runtime system and a development system
119. Some of the RTOS are distributed all over the world, the number of installations reaches hundreds of thousands, which is not bad for industrial systems, while others are designed for a specific microcontroller model and the number of copies sold … exceed two or three dozen
*do not
*did not
*does not
*were not
120. The … protocol is not based on any of the common network protocols such as IPX or NetBios and has a number of qualities that make it unique (give the abbreviation)
121. The disadvantage of the Self-Hosted RTOS is that most of the listed OS features are not used during the operation of an industrial computer and, therefore, … computer resources in vain
*take up
*took up
*took up
*will take up
*would take up
122. The interrupt latency is the time interval from …
*an event on an object to the execution of the first instruction in the program for processing this event
*the moment a physical interrupt occurs to the start of execution of the first instruction of the user task to which the interrupt is intended
*the end of the execution of the last instruction of one process (thread) to the start of the execution of the first instruction of the next process (thread)
*the end of the execution of the last user interrupt handler instruction to the execution of the first instruction of the process that entered the state due to this interrupt
123. The microkernel, process manager, device manager, file system manager, network manager belong to …
*ОСРВ VxWorks
*QNX RTOS
*ОСРВ OS-9
124. The time interval determines how often each of the active processes … receive control under the given time slicing parameters
*could
*can be
*can
*be able to
125. When a new driver is added to the system, no side effects can occur in the form of, for example, a conflict with other …
126. … AE has been ported to leading high-availability CompactPCI platforms such as the CPX8000 from Motorola Computer Group
*VxWorks
*VRTX
*CHORUS
*OS-9
127. … business is the sale of goods and services to consumers, in contrast to wholesaling, which is sale to business or institutional customers
128. … computer is a type of computers that harnesses the collective properties of quantum states, such as superposition, interference, and entanglement, to perform calculations
129. … extends a private network across a public network and enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks (give the abbreviation)
130. … heterogeneity is when database schema or datasets for the same domain are developed by independent parties, resulting in differences in meaning and interpretation of data values
131. … integration is giving way to very-large-scale integration (VLSI) and wafer-scale integration (WSI)
132. … invented a machine called the Tabulating machine
*Gottfried Leibniz
*Joseph Marie Jacquard
*Charles Babbage
*Herman Hollerith
133. … is a group of several proprietary graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and marketed by Microsoft
134. … is a Linux distribution that provides a free and open-source community-supported computing platform
135. … is a person who identifies and analyzes business problems, and generates system requirements
*Project manager
*System architect
*Enterprise architect
*Business systems analyst
136. … is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or “chip”) of semiconductor material, usually silicon
137. … is a technical person who builds new software systems
*System architect
*Project manager
*System designer
*Application developer
138. … is an electronic machine that can store, organize and find information, do processes with numbers and other data, and control other machines
139. … is an open-source Linux distribution built on the architecture and infrastructure of Debian
140. … is data that provides information about other data, but not the content of the data, such as the text of a message or the image itself
141. … is something that needs great mental or physical effort in order to be done successfully and therefore tests a person’s ability
142. … is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a non-profit organization, or a government body
143. … is the branch of ethics that focuses on the relationship between the creation, organization, dissemination, and use of information, and the ethical standards and moral codes governing human conduct in society
144. … is the property of a system to handle a growing amount of work by adding resources to the system
145. … is the world’s dominant software platform
*RTF
*SGML
*HTML
*WWW
146. … latency is the time interval from the end of the execution of the last user interrupt handler instruction to the execution of the first instruction of the process that entered the state due to this interrupt
147. … means compilers produce code that does not contain absolute addresses
*Relocatability
*Performance
*Scalability
*System integration
148. … memory is a memory management technique that provides an idealized abstraction of the storage resources that are actually available on a given machine which creates the illusion to users of a very large (main) memory
149. … operating systems are the systems that run on a server and manage all the networking functions
150. … OS is an Android-based mobile operating system designed for Amazon’s phones
151. … switch time is the time interval from the end of the execution of the last instruction of one process (thread) to the start of the execution of the first instruction of the next process (thread)
152. … systems are computerized systems used in manufacturing to track and document the transformation of raw materials to finished goods
153. … technology was used in the first generation of computers
*Transistors
*Vacuum tubes
*Motherboards
*High-end microprocessor
154. … time is the time interval from the moment a physical interrupt occurs to the start of execution of the first instruction of the user task to which the interrupt is intended
155. … was the first general purpose electronic computer
*ENIAC
*CNAM
*UNIVAC
*CADC
156. … was used in the first generation of computers
*Machine language
*C++ language
*Punched cards
*Java language
157. …. ensure the uninterrupted operation of vital systems, therefore, if a failure occurs or some illegal operations are performed, the OS must diagnose them, if necessary, block the program or isolate applications from each other, initiate recovery and protection of other programs or the system itself
*RTOS
*BOS
*DOS
* RTS
158. …. technologies are one of the most basic through technologies in many documents and by many experts
*Augmented reality
*Artificial intelligence
*Photonics
*Bionics
159. …business is the sale of goods and services to consumers, in contrast to wholesaling, which is sale to business or institutional customers
160. A … is a device that stores electrical energy in an electric field
161. A … is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element
162. A … operating system, often known as a multitasking OS, works by dedicating time to a certain activity and frequently switching between them
*batch
*network
*real-time
*time-sharing
163. A magnetic tape is one that had to be … attached
*manually
*alternately
*successively
*automatically
164. A mechanical calculator invented by Blaise Pascal in 1642 is called …
165. A piece of software that sits between the hardware and the user is an … system
*mediating
*operating
*facilitating
*moderating
166. A roadblock to data availability such as connectivity means that … (choose 2 correct answers)
*your data is too inconvenient for me to load
*your unclassified data describe company secrets
*systems are not connected to the same network
*users are not aware of specific data sets because metadata is not published
167. According to current rates of growth in microelectronics, … of the world’s population will own a notebook-size computer with the capacity of today’s huge computers in roughly a decade
*30 %
*40 %
*50 %
*80 %
168. According to Professor W. Martin, the information society is understood as a “developed … society” that arose primarily in the West
*industrial
*modern
*post-industrial
*post-modern
169. According to the … criterion highlighted by W. Martin, information acts as an important stimulant for changing the quality of life, «information consciousness» is formed and affirmed with wide access to information
*social
*cultural
*economic
*technological
170. According to the … Institute, by 2055 unemployment will reach around 50 % of the total labor force (give or take 20 years depending on artificial intelligence growth)
*Oxford
*McKinsey
*Massachusetts
*Cambridge
171. According to the research company comScore Networks in 2019, the number of Internet users worldwide amounted to … people
*555 million
*747 million
*2 billion
*7 billion
172. Another name for bipolar transistors is …
*vacuum tubes
* junction transistors
*field-effect transistors
*insulated-gate bipolar transistors
173. Arrange the inventions chronologically:
1The Stepped Reckoner
2 Atanasoff-Berry Computer
3 Mark II
4 UNIVAC
174. Arrange the microelectronics in chronological order of their creation:
1 vacuum tube
2 bipolar transistor
3 MOSFET
4 SSI
5 MSI
175. Arrange the microelectronics in chronological order of their creation:
1SSI
2 MSI
3 ALU
4 LSI
5 VLSI
176. Arrange the operating systems in descending order of popularity in 2022 (according to website StatCounter GlobalStats):
1 Microsoft Windows
2 Apple Inc’s macOS
3 Chrome OS
4 Linux
177. Arrange the stages of the development of the internet in chronological order:
1 the first connection between Stanford and UCLA organisers, the emergence of ARPANET
2 creation of Ethernet – the first local communication
3 the first spam appeared; the first unsolicited email was sent, reaching 600 ARPANET users
4 Tim Berners-Lee creates the first web page aimed at explaining what the World Wide Web is
178. Arrange the states of tasks in typical RTOS designs in chronological order:
1 running (executing on the CPU)
2 ready (ready to be executed)
3 blocked (waiting for an event, I/O for example)
179. Bell Telephone Laboratories’ John Bardeen, Walter H. Brattain, and William Shockley devised the … in 1948
*vacuum tube
*bipolar transistor
*field-effect transistor
*insulated-gate bipolar transistor
180. Cell phones are …, making it possible to provide everyone with communication channels
181. Cell phones are digital, it was the transition to digital that made it possible to provide everyone with communication channels, but without … in SIM cards, cellular communications could not become mass
182. Chrome OS is another Linux kernel-based operating system created by …
183. Context switch time is the time interval from …
*an event on an object to the execution of the first instruction in the program for processing this event
*the moment a physical interrupt occurs to the start of execution of the first instruction of the user task to which the interrupt is intended
*the end of the execution of the last instruction of one process (thread) to the start of the execution of the first instruction of the next process (thread)
*the end of the execution of the last user interrupt handler instruction to the execution of the first instruction of the process that entered the state due to this interrupt
184. Correlate the generations of computers with their descriptions:
A. Computers of the First Generation
B. Computers of a New Generation
C. Computers of the Third Generation
D. Computers of the Fourth Generation
E. huge machines capable of conducting numerical calculations
F. computers were mostly utilized for scientific and technical calculations, with FORTRAN and assembly code being the most used programming languages
G. the machines shared the same architecture and instruction set, programs created for one could be run on the other
H. computers with Large Scale Integration Circuits (LSI) and silicon chips with thousands of transistors
185. Data … is the process of combining data from multiple sources into a single system or in close proximity to one another, such as on a display, so that the user may access them from a single platform
*access policy
*access issue
*aggregation
*scalability
186. Debian is a pre-compiled software that has over … packages and is based on the Linux kernel
*59 000
*100 000
*200 500
*347 000
187. Demand for programmers is already outstripping supply, and some analysts believe that this shortfall will limit … usage development in the next few years
188. Establish a correspondence between RTOS and their types:
A. RTOS types by software development method
B. RTOS types by origin
C. Types of RTOS by internal structure
D. host-target RTOS
E. object-oriented type
F. “regular” OS
189. Establish a correspondence between the abbreviation and the definition:
A. ISO
B. CORBA
C. XML
D. SQL
E. International Standards Organization
F. Common Object Request Broker Architecture
G. Extensible Markup Language
H. Structured Query Language
190. Establish a correspondence between the concept and the definition:
A. Standards
B. Legacy systems
C. Data aggregation
D. Scalability
E. it is a difficulty that develops when a solution that works for a small data set fails to function for a much larger data set due to a combinatorial explosion, such as in comparands
F. they promote inter-service interoperability, meaning exchanging and making use of information, and interoperability between various component systems within the same service
G. it is the process of combining data from multiple sources into a single system or in close proximity to one another, such as on a display, so that the user may access them from a single platform
H. it is any system you have, they contain corporate knowledge
191. For the past … years, the design of computer processors has remained stable
*20
*30
*40
*50
192. Harvard Mark I is …
*a punched wooden card
*a mechanical-digital computer
*a fully automatic computing machine
*an automatic sequence controlled calculator
193. If you have an old system, the running process will be too … and inefficient
*fast
*slow
*clear
*unpredictable
194. In 1837, … designed a general-purpose computing device, called the analytical engine
*Charles Babbage
*James Powers
*Vannevar Bush
*William Seward Burrough
195. In 1936, Alan Turing invented a universal machine, which was later called the …
196. In 1944 Howard Aiken developed … l that could perform calculations involving large numbers
197. In November 1985, Microsoft released … – computer operating system
198. Information management is an important part of knowledge-oriented businesses in the … century
*18th
*19th
*20th
*21th
199. International Business Machine’s first mass-produced electronic stored-program … was IBM
200. Match computers to their creators:
A. Mark 1
B. Pascaline
C. Napier’s bones
D. Personal computer
E. Howard Aikien
F. Blaise Pascal
G. John Napier
H. IBM
201. Match the abbreviations and transcripts:
A. ICTs
B. AI
C. GDP
D. information and communication technologies
E. artificial intelligence
F. gross domestic product
202. Match the approaches to understanding the information society and their authors:
A. W. Martin
B. Rakitov
C. N. Kurnosov
D. the information society is understood as a «developed post-industrial society» that arose primarily in the West
E. the transition to the information society means that the most important product of social activity is the production, operation and use of services and knowledge, and the share of knowledge in this combination is increasing
F. the information society is dominated by remote communications, remote work and leisure; new relations are formed between people in the process of production and social activity
203. Match the components of QNX with their characteristics:
A. Microkernel
B. Process manager
C. Device manager
D. Network manager
E. it is protected by several layers of protection
F. a bottleneck in most operating systems and usually creates significant problems for RTOS
G. a type of system process that keeps specific hardware running smoothly
H. responsible for creating and deleting processes, memory management, timers and coprocessor emulation, and diagnostics
204. Match the concepts with their characteristics:
A. The interrupt latency
B. Task response time
C. Context switch time
D. Scheduling latency
E. the time interval from an event on an object to the execution of the first instruction in the program for processing this event
F. the time interval from the moment a physical interrupt occurs to the start of execution of the first instruction of the user task to which the interrupt is intended
G. the time interval from the end of the execution of the last instruction of one process (thread) to the start of the execution of the first instruction of the next process (thread)
H. the time interval from the end of the execution of the last user interrupt handler instruction to the execution of the first instruction of the process that entered the state due to this interrupt
205. Match the parts of the sentences:
A. Demand for programmers is already outstripping supply, …
B. Because the employee is working from home, …
C. The recipient, in turn, receives this email in a matter of minutes, and if there is a problem, …
D. Microelectronics and nanoelectronics advancements affect not just the amount of employment available in industrial countries, …
E. …and some analysts believe that this shortfall will limit computer usage development in the next few years
F. …but also, the kind of professions accessible
G. …the system instantly alerts the sender that a communication has failed and that he must resend it
H. …the company’s electricity expenditures will be reduced, and the employee will be more comfortable working from home
206. Match the people and the terms they put in use:
A. Fritz Machlup
B. Professor W. ‪William Martin‬
C. Nikon Kurnosov
D. “knowledge workers”
E. “developed post-industrial society”
F. “the information society”
207. Match the sentence to the tense in which it is written:
A. Android OS is primarily written in Java (UI), C (core), and C , and is designed for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets
B. In 2014, Android apps were made available on Chrome OS
C. The most recent long-term support release is 20.10 (Groovy Gorilla), which will be supported for 9 months
D. Each version of Android has been given a code name that is confectionery-themed and in alphabetical sequence
E. Present Simple Passive
F. Past Simple Passive
G. Future Simple Passive
H. Present Perfect Passive
208. Match the sentence with the time it was written:
A. BINAC and EDSAC were notable early stored-program electronic digital computers
B. Until now, there hasn’t been any quantum-computing platform that had the capability to program new algorithms
C. Developers have been trying to find a solution to this problem since the last century but still haven’t found one
D. Nowadays many smartphones have faster processor speeds and more memory than desktop PCs
E. Past Simple
F. Present Perfect
G. Present Perfect Continuous
H. Present Simple
209. Match the sentences and the missing word combinations in them:
A. The application of nanotechnology on electronic components, particularly transistors, …
B. As a result, even if current transistors are created using 65 nm or 45 nm technology, …
C. …, rapid technology advancement has produced a plethora of new and exciting options
D. At the same time, …, despite varying recessions
E. is referred to as nanoelectronics
F. they fall under this group
G. rather than killing jobs
H. output has increased
210. Match the terms and definitions:
A. Watt
B. Voltage
C. Nanoelectronics
D. a unit of power or radiant flux
E. the work needed per unit of charge to move a test charge between the two points
F. the use of nanotechnology in electronic components
211. Match the terms and definitions:
A. Multi-core processor
B. Capacitor
C. Solar cells
D. an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon
E. a computer processor on a single integrated circuit with two or more separate processing units, called cores, each of which reads and executes program instructions
F. a device that stores electrical energy in an electric field. It is a passive electronic component with two terminals
212. Match the units of data measurement with their characteristics:
A. Bit
B. Kilobyte (kb)
C. Gigabyte (Gb)
D. is the smallest unit of measurement
E. is approximately 1000 bytes, or the equivalent of 1000 characters
F. is approximately 1000 Mb, or the equivalent of one billion characters
213. MULTICS was developed by …
*Apple Inc
*Kaspersky Labs
*Linux
*Bell Labs
214. Put the number of Internet users worldwide from the smallest to the largest:
1 South Africa
2 Russia
3 China
4 the USA
215. Put today’s potential of automation in the USA according to McKinsey Global Institute from the lowest to the biggest:
1 education
2 health care and social service
3 retail and wholesale trade, transportation
4 technologies, media and telecommunications abacus
5 hotel and restaurant business
216. RTOS are operating systems that are characterized by … (choose 3 correct answers)
*high level of readiness
*guaranteed response time
*unlimited memory resources
*low performance
217. Talent, intellectual property, finance, and technical experience will always be in demand as the global economy is revolutionised by … technology
*old
* new
*great
*cool
218. The … transistor was conceived about 25 years before bipolar transistors, but mass production did not become feasible until the early 1960s
219. The analytical engine was invented in …
*1933
*1833
*1733
*2022
220. The Apple Macintosh, a low-cost workstation that emerged from early Alto computer concepts, was released in …
*1960
* 1984
*1987
*2001
221. The author of The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the United States (1962) is …
*Frank Webster
*Fritz Machlup
*William Martin
*Anatoly Ilyich Rakitov
222. The benefits of specialized RTOS include … (choose 2 correct answers)
*intolerance
* top performance
*long development time
* the greatest compactness
223. The first calculating device was …
224. The first operating system for the IBM 701 was created by …
*Apple
*Google
*Samsung
* General Motors
225. The interrupt … is the time interval from an event on an object to the execution of the first instruction in the program for processing this event
226. The most significant worldwide danger is the rise in labor … when information technologies are implemented
227. The network operating system, which allows users to copy files from …
*one station to another
*RAM to built-in memory
*RAM to Cloud memory
*a station to Cloud memory
228. The observations that apply to a common … information system also apply to a certain extent to data warehouses and data mining
*integrated
*real-time
*distributed
*embedded
229. The OS-9 family of real-time operating systems has been in use for over … years, with more than 5 million installed copies
*twenty
*thirty
*forty
*fifty
230. The second most important direction for strengthening accounting policies in the information society is the massive use of …
*passports
*GPS signals
*GLONASS
*cryptography
231. The stage of society’s development when the service sector generates more wealth than the manufacturing sector of the economy is called … society
*industrial
*knowledge
*information
*post-industrial
232. The term “…” refers to the social, economic, technological, and cultural changes that have occurred as a result of the rapid development and extensive use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in modern countries, particularly since World War II
233. The transistor’s most significant advantage over the best vacuum tubes was that it …
*produced a lot of heat
*consumed far less power
*took 1 to 2 minutes to warm up
*were less reliable and had a shorter lifespan
234. The transistor’s most significant advantage over the best vacuum tubes was that it consumed far …
*longer lifespan
*shorter lifespan
*big advantage
*small advantage
235. The unfair situation in society when some people have more opportunities, money, etc. than other people is called …
*equality
*injustice
*inequality
*lawlessness
236. There are some of the potential advantages of real-time operating systems, for example … (choose 2 correct answers)
*they use heavy system resources
*they allow easy allocation of memory
*they allow fast shifting from one task to another
*they run on complex algorithms that are not easy to understand
237. There are some of the potential disadvantages of distributed operating systems, for example … (choose 2 correct answers)
*they minimize the load on the host computer
*they require a high level of expertise to maintain
*they allow a faster exchange of data among users
* if the primary network fails, the entire system shuts down
238. Transferred data might contain some important …
*signs
*chains
*texts
* information
239. Until the 1800s “computers” were …
*simple calculating machines
*any automated devices in the household
*people who performed repetitive mathematical operations
*electronic machines that can store, organize and find information
240. Vacuum tubes were discovered to have a number of flaws, for example … (choose 3 correct answers)
*they produced very little of heat
*they took 1 to 2 minutes to warm up
*two similar tubes had varying output and operational properties
*they required high power supply voltages of 300 volts dc and higher
241. W. Martin emphasizes the idea that … is “a key element of the information society”
242. A company deals with tasks which take a long time to complete. Each worker has their duties that can be done offline. It’s essential for managers to estimate how long a task will take to be completed. The company uses a time-sharing system and all the users are able to finish their work in the system at the same time. However they noticed their gadgets to slow down fast. Also the workers notice the inconvenience while managing large workloads. What may be causing these problems? What decision should the company make?
*The company wants to execute a lot of things at the same time, which is now impossible, so each worker needs to use different languages to get the job done. In their case the company should use Operating System
*Workers cannot send direct instructions to the complier to execute various activities since it is extremely difficult for the user to transform their request or instruction into one language. In their case the company should use Input/Output System
*The company uses a system that dedicates time to a certain activity and frequently switches between the computers, which is overloading while completing long tasks. In their case the company should use Batch System
243. A UNIX based operating system, was originally developed in the mid-’90s. Its major offerings include scalability, interoperability, data management and security, all of which are crucial for businesses that need high-end operating software. In addition to the above, it is also known for its web, database and Java-based services and its unlimited capacity for helping in managing file system and databases is a big plus as well. Which operating system is described:
*Solaris, which is known as Oracle Solaris since 2010 when Oracle acquired Sun Microsystems
*Ubuntu, built on the architecture and infrastructure of Debian
*Free BSD, developed in the University of California by a large community
244. An information society is a society where the usage, creation, distribution, manipulation and integration of information is a significant activity. Which of the following statements is not true about the Information Society?
*The information society refers to the social, economic, technological, and cultural changes that have occurred as a result of the rapid development and extensive use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in modern countries, particularly since World War II
*According to Professor W. Martin attempted to formulate the main characteristics of the information society according to the Social and Technological criteria
*The information society has been formed decades ago, and therefore has been widely studied from different angles; experts have reached the consensus regarding the “Information Society” term
245. Artificial intelligence is becoming more standardized, making it more accessible to a subject-matter expert who isn’t necessarily a knowledge engineering expert. What standards are becoming more common accessible and useful today?
*International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Remote Data Access (RDA)
*American National Admissions Institute (ANSI) Structured Join Language (SQL)
*Object Management Group (OMG) – Common Object Broker Architecture (CORBA)
*Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), Extensible Markup Language (XML)
*Web Ontology Language (OWL), Knowledge Query and Manipulation Language, Win Interchange Format (KIF)
246. Cryptography is the study of secure communications techniques that allow only the sender and intended recipient of a message to view its contents. What does a massive use of cryptography lead to?
*Among other things, it leads to protection of accounting for payment by subscribers of a digital communication channel
*It leads to the dissemination of obscene materials that pose a threat to the moral foundations of society, because people feel free when they can act anonymously, distribute, buy and sell illegal materials with low chance of tracing them
*It leads to a significant improvement of the identification of people by automatic machines when crossing the borders of states
247. Data access can be difficult due to many problems. Which of the following situations describes the documentation problem?
*I need your information now or I won\'t be able to use it. The data transfer process is too slow, possibly unavailable. Because you have an older system, the migration process is too slow and inefficient. I must have immediate access to your data; otherwise your data will not help me
*The systems are not connected to the same network. Your data is too inconvenient to download. When the systems are not on the same network, downloading data can be too inconvenient. The widespread use of the World Wide Web has reduced the number of problems in this area, but separate networks will always exist
*Users are not aware of specific data sets because your metadata is not published. When metadata is not widely available, users may not even know what data sets they need
248. In the 1960s and 1970s, microcomputers and minicomputers became available to businesses and individuals. Thanks to what technology did it become possible?
*This was made possible by the creation of integrated circuit
*This was made possible by the creation of macro chips
*This was made possible by the creation of 4-bit processor
*This was made possible by the creation of UNIVAC
249. Martin Timmerman formulated the necessary requirements for an RTOS. Two of them are about priorities. Why the combination of priorities is necessary?
*The RTS software is a fixed set of pre-developed modules, and the choice of a program for execution is carried out by interrupts (based on the current state of the object) or in accordance with the scheduled work schedule
*It is the opposite of “necessary”, as the combination of thread priorities can lead to problems such as priority inversion and deadlock
*RTOS needs to share resources. There are a lot of real-time process and system resources for their operation must be available in advance
250. Most businesses don’t want to deal with non-core tasks, which include the IT infrastructure. And if it has to pay for a data center, it has to function at maximum efficiency. Crisis situations are exacerbating resource shortages. Enterprises are cutting IT budgets, investing less in long-term projects in general and in data centers in particular. It is impossible to abandon IT altogether – it is equal to giving up doing business, but phased financing and speed of commissioning come to the fore. What do today’s IT managers face while having limited budgetary resources to expand data centers?
*Task of providing more services to more users, meeting ever-increasing performance expectations, storing and managing exponentially increasing amounts of data, better protecting the network, and ensuring system stability
*Mail to be lost when using postal mail, and neither the sender nor the receiver would know where the letter was or whether it had been delivered
*They face a lot of challenges as “hundreds of billions of dollars are spent annually on mobile phones, electronic devices, computers, and other microelectronic products, spawning an entire industry that did not exist a decade ago”
251. Prior to the transistor’s discovery in 1947, the only way to execute amplification of a weak current in an electronic circuit was to use a vacuum tube. What were the initial advantages transistors demonstrated over small vacuum tubes?
*Transistors had longer lifespan, were smaller and many of them could be placed on a single chip
*Transistors were larger, while consuming far less power. They were more reliable
*Small vacuum tubes’ production cost was much higher. Tubes’ material turned out to be harmful for people’s skin
252. The first recognized use of the word “computer” was from 1613.What did the “computer” use to mean before this word started to refer to devices?
*It was used for people who have a high level of intelligence
*It was used for a device which helped ships to calculate their latitude at sea
*It was used for people who performed repetitive mathematical operations
253. The OS-9 family of real-time operating systems has been in use for over 20 years, with more than 5 million installed copies. The range of OS-9 applications is wide – industrial automation, instrumental and measuring systems, military and space systems. Why has the OS-9 been so popular and widely used?
*Number of supported hardware platforms and the quality of that support; various development tools; advanced network facilities
*Unlimited number of tasks; it\'s the first commercial real-time OS designed for building highly reliable fault-tolerant systems
*Their protocol is not based on any of the common network protocols such as IPX or NetBios and has a number of qualities that make it unique; keeps specific hardware running smoothly

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